May it be that central/ intranasal proinsulin C-peptide has a favorable effect by its HRV increasing ability on most of the clinical markers of the poor outcome of COVID-19? (Il-6, D-dimer, Lymphocytes)

  1. IL-6: Heart rate variability (HRV) is in inverse relationship with IL-6: Relationship between Heart Rate Variability, Interleukin-6, and Soluble Tissue Factor in Healthy Subjects:
  2. D-dimer: D-dimer is in inverse relationship with endothelial progenitor cells and edothelial progenitor cells are positively associated with HRV or parasympathetic tone at least in patients with hypertension. : Lower Levels of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Are Associated with Increased Recurrence after Unprovoked Venous Thrombosis:
    Sympathetic Predominance Is Associated With Impaired Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Tunneling Nanotubes in Controlled-Hypertensive Patients:
  3. Lymphopenia: Under certain condition lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+ etc.) are positively associated with HRV or parasympathetic tone and C-peptide increases parasympathetic tone and HRV: Leukocyte Populations are Associated with Heart Rate Variability After a Triathlon:
    Stress Determined Through Heart Rate Variability Predicts Immune Function:

Proinsulin C Peptide Obviates Sympathetically Mediated Suppression of Splenic Lymphocyte Activity in Rats:

C-peptide Improves Autonomic Nerve Function in IDDM Patients:

Proinsulin C-peptide Activates Vagus Efferent Output in Rats:
Intranasal Administration of Proinsulin C-Peptide Enhances the Stimulating Effect of Insulin on Insulin System Activity in the Hypothalamus of Diabetic Rats:

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